*Summary of the capabilities of the program PCSheetPileWall*

**With the aid of this program the displacements and the force
distribution of a sheet pile wall construction can be calculated.**

**NEW**

**For stress checks both classic safety coefficients and u.c.- values
according Eurocode 7 (EN 1997-1) are supported**

The figure below gives an
impression of options present into the sheet pile wall program.

*Input
section properties of sheet pile wall*

*Impression
of the per construction phase calculated moment, shear
force and displacement distributions.*

Impression of the per
construction phase calculated water and total pressure distributions at the left and right side of the
sheet pile wall.

**A further
outline of the capabilities of the program:**

**1. Levels**

The program has the capability
to locate the top of the sheet pile wall, the place of anchors, soil layers
etcetera according two different systems of axes.

a. Vertical axis pointing **downwards**. The zero point is the top
side of the sheet pile wall.

b. Vertical axis pointing **upwards**. The zero point is that of the
national surveying system of levels.

**2. Sheet pile wall**** **

The sheet pile wall in
vertical direction can consists out of more than one section with different values
for the moment of inertia and elastic modulus.

The default acting width of
the sheet pile wall is 1 m. This values can be
decreased, by which graduated sheet pile walls can be calculated for example.

Further
the program has a design option by which the length of a sheet pile wall from a
entered start length and with a certain step size by the program will be
enlarged automatically.

For the input of the section
properties of a sheet pile wall these can be loaded from a standard library of
commercial available sheet pile sections included.

The program has the ability to
calculate the cross-section properties of a so called combi wall, existing of
circular shaped tubes with standard sheet pile sections in between.

At default the orientation of
the sheet pile wall is vertical; an option is present to give the sheet pile
wall a certain inclination.

**3. Surface and (ground) water levels**** **

Dependent of the choice made
the surface level can have different shapes per construction phase:

**a.** Surface level is: horizontal and plain

**b.** Surface level is:
sloping and plain

**c.** Surface level is: bended; consisting of **n** bend points and **n-1** straight lines (Culmann method).

The program has no preference
with regard what will be entered al the left of right side of the sheet pile
wall.

The excavations at the 3
figures above could have taken place at the right side also.

*Water levels*

From the entered (ground)
water level to below a hydrostatic build up of water stresses takes place.

The volume weight of the water
is by default 9.81 kN/m^{3}, but this can be changed by the user when
needed.

Per entered soil layer, in
relation to the hydrostatic stress distribution, an extra under or over water
pressure can be entered if necessary; provided that this option is switched on.

The under and over pressures
can be entered.

**4****. Vertical surcharges acting on the surface level**** **

Dependent on the choice for
the kind of surface level (see at preceding point 3) different kinds of
surcharges acting onto the surface level per construction phase can be entered
at the left and/or right side of the sheet pile wall.

**a.** Surface level: horizontal and plain *or* **b****.** Surface level: sloping and plain

- equal
distributed surcharge

- trapezium
shaped surcharge

- Line load

- Point load

- Arbitrary shaped surcharge

**c.** Surface level: bended; existing out of **n **bend points and **n-1** straight lines (Culmann method).

- Line loads

- Block loads

Further at an arbitrary place
onto the sheet pile wall a vertical line load can be placed.

For the calculation it is
taken into account that this vertical normal force has an influence on the size
of the moment distribution at the sheet pile wall (2^{e} order effects
caused by the deflections of the sheet pile wall).

**5****. Horizontal
conditions**

Per construction phase the
following horizontal acting entities can be entered:

- anchors
(or struts) with an anchor bulkhead when needed; prestressing
and a maximum load capacity can be entered

- spring
supports

- fixed supports

- moments
acting at a certain onto the sheet pile wall

- under
water concrete

- arbitrary
shaped horizontal load acting onto the sheet pile wall

**6****. Soil
properties**

Dependent on the choice at
various setups the strength and stiffness properties can be entered at a
different way.

- the
user does enter the friction angle and the angle of wall friction per soil
layer apart; the program does calculate the needed horizontal active, neutral
and passive effective stress coefficients (labda
values) from it

- the
user does enter the horizontal active, neutral and passive effective stress
coefficients (labda values) directly into the
program.

When the choice has been made
for bended surface levels
(Culmann) or sloping plane surface
levels than the second option is not possible however.

When this is setup the number
and properties of soil layers can be different for each construction phase,
otherwise the soil properties are equal for all construction phases..

The stiffness of the is
reproduced with the aid of a spring constant This spring constant can have a
linear distribution in size over the thickness of a soil layer.

The choice can be made for a
linear course of the spring stiffness between the active and passive
displacement or a non linear course (tri-linear).

*linear**
course of the spring stiffness (single spring stiffness)*

*as**
an alternative for the input of the
spring constant the size of the horizontal stretch can be entered also (a less
common approach)*

*non**
constant value for the spring stiffness; approximation by 3 straight lines*

*input 3** secans values (k _{1}, k_{2} and k_{3})*

The values of 50% and 80% are
the default values; these can be changed by the user however.

**7. Input parameters**

The input of data into the
program is divided into the next parts.

**8****. Diaphragm
walls ***(made of
concrete)*

With the entered properties of
a concrete diaphragm wall the cracked bending stiffness will be calculated by
the program (a so called M-N-K diagram).

Next to the non-linear
behaviour of the soil the behaviour of the diaphragm
wall is non-linear too therefore.

*Input
of properties of diaphragm wall*

*An
example of a calculated M-N-K dugram*

*Calculated
cracked stiffness for a certain construction phase of the diaphragm wall*

**9****.
Deterministic or probabilistic calculation**

For a deterministic calculation the basic assumption is fixed values for the
various input parameters.

For a probabilistic calculation the basic assumption is a probability
distribution for the various input parameters (a specialty of PCSheetPileWall).

A deterministic approach is
the usual method in practice.

The probabilistic approach is
a more advanced method, which for three failure mechanism
(soil collapse, sheet pile wall collapse, collapse of anchor(s)) does calculate
the probability of failure. Furthermore the influence per statistical parameter
(stochastic variable) on the total probability of failure will be calculated,
from which follows which stochastic variable is more or less important for the
calculated probability of failure.

A probabilistic
calculation should be performed at a development phase that the design, with
classical deterministic design methods, has been fully thought trough only (it’s a check afterwards). A probabilistic calculation can be thought of as an automatic weighted sensitivity
analyses.

In the program
it’s possible for a number of variables next to the expectation value to enter
the standard deviation for that variable; with which the variable has become a
stochastic variable. The stochastic variables have a standard normal
probability distribution; unless decided otherwise.
For the SOIL properties the stochastic variable can
have a NORMAL or LOGNORMAL probability distribution. The advantage of the
lognormal distribution is that the regarding variable will have a value always
larger than zero. The soil strength
properties in a physical sense cannot have negative values. For not to large standard deviations the differences between the
normal and lognormal distribution are not so big.

The (ground) water levels at
the left and right side of the sheet pile wall are allowed to have a non normal probability
distribution.

For this input variables there
are nine different probability distribution functions foreseen: Normal, Right
truncated Normal, Left truncated Normal, Exponential, Gumbel (type I extreme
distribution for largest values(, Type I extreme
distribution for smallest values, Weibull (type III extreme distribution for
smallest values), Uniform and LogNormal.

*Knowledge of
the backgrounds of the probabilistic theory is very essential for the use of
the program***.**

**10****. Earthquake
loads according EN 1998-5**